Mark Kramer is director of the Cold War Studies program at Harvard University's Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies. He has taught at Harvard, Yale, and Brown Universities and was formerly an Academy Scholar in Harvard's Academy of International and Area Studies and a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University. He is an expert on the history of the Cold War, the Soviet Union, and political and economic change in post-Communist Eastern Europe. Kramer is the author or editor of several books, has written nearly 200 articles on a variety of topics, and is editor of the Journal of Cold War Studies, which features peer-reviewed articles based on archival research in the former Communist world and in Western countries. He has worked extensively in newly opened archives in all the former Warsaw Pact countries and several Western countries. He has been a consultant for numerous government agencies and international organizations.